This survey is one of the surveys conducted by the Services and Finance Division. It provides detailed data on the Services and Finance sector noting that the data are used primarily for calculating the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and the economic indicators. The Division also provides data to planners, researchers and policy makers.

The services sector in Jordan is an important economic sector that contributes to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and employment. Due to this importance, the Department of Statistics (DoS) conducts an annual sample survey of establishments engaged in the activities of this sector such as hotels, restaurants, real estate, renting of machinery and equipment (without operators) in addition to other services in the fields of education, health, communications, repair of computers, personal and household goods, social work and other social and personal services.

The importance of this survey is highlighted by the data it provides covering the number of establishments, compensation of workers, requirements for producing commodities and services, production expenses, gross production, value added, volume of investment through movement of fixed assets, and other data that assist in the preparation of economic statistical indicators and the national accounts.

1- 2: Survey Objectives

The Services Survey aims – in general – to provide the following data by type of activity:

  1. Compensation of employees (salaries, wages and benefits in cash and in kind).
  2. Total value of production and intermediate consumption.
  3. Measuring the size of capital invested and providing data on capital formation during the year.
  4. Estimating the contribution of the Services Sector to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and to provide the necessary data for preparing the national accounts in accordance with the United Nations System of National Accounts 1993.
  5. Data needed for economic analysis.
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1 – 3: Survey Coverage

The International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) does not provide a separate section or chapter for the “services” activity. However, based on the concepts of the (System of National Accounts – SNA 1993 – and the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), activities can be classified into two types: FIRST (that produces goods) and SECOND (that produces services).

Some activities of the services are covered by specialized surveys such as transport, communications, banking and insurance, while the data of some services activities such as health and education are provided by government institutions through the general state budget and the budgets of independent institutions. The remaining services’ activities not covered by the above mentioned sources will be covered in this survey as follows:

  • The Profit-Generating Enterprises

These establishments include the following activities in accordance with the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC), Rev. 4:

  1. Hotels and restaurants.
  2. Real estate, including: owned and leased properties and real estate brokerage offices.
  3. Rental of machinery and equipment (without operators) and leasing of personal and household goods.
  4. Computer activities and related activities, including: consultancy, programs and databases.
  5. Other business activities that include: legal, accounting, market research, consultancy, administration, engineering, advertising, employment, security, buildings’ cleaning, photography and other business activities not classified elsewhere.
  6. Education, including: basic, secondary, higher education and old people education.
  7. Health, including: hospitals, clinics, laboratories, radiography clinics and veterinary activities.
  8. Other community and personal services activities, including: recreational, cultural, sports and other service activities such as laundry and barbershops.
  9. Telecommunications activities of all types, land lines, wireless and satellite.
  10. The activities of travel agencies, tour operators and travel booking.
  11. Repair of computers, personal and household goods.
  • Non-Profit Enterprises

These include:

  1. Social and religious welfare institutions such as charities, Red Crescent and churches.
  2. Business organizations and professional and labor organizations such as trade unions, federations and chambers of commerce.
  3. Sports clubs and social (community) clubs.
  4. Political parties.
  5. United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA).

1 – 4: Sample Design

The Kingdom was divided into three regions. Then, the population in each region was divided into three strata, and the sample was drawn as follows:

Category Establishments covered by the stratum
1 Surveying all establishments that have twenty workers or more.
2 Withdrawing a representative sample from  establishments with 5 to 19 workers
3 Withdrawing a representative sample from establishments that have less than five workers


2 -1: Main Documents of the Survey

These documents include the survey questionnaire, the instruction manual for field workers, the office and electronic edit rules and the coding manuals. The main documents are summarized below:

  1. The Survey Questionnaire

A comprehensive review of the survey questionnaire is normally carried out at the beginning of each year, taking into account all data and information that meet the survey objectives and provides data for the preparation of national accounts tables and input and output tables in accordance with international recommendations. The questionnaire includes the following main topics:

– Identification data and general data of the establishment.

 – Compensation of employees in the establishment.

 – Intermediate consumption of commodity and service inputs.

 – Main activity income, secondary activities and other income.

 – Payments and receipts from property and financial transactions.

 – Taxes on production and imports.

 – Financial assets and liabilities, movement of fixed assets and capital formation.

B – The Instruction Manual

This manual includes the definitions and concepts used and also the detailed instructions for the field staff at all supervisory and executive levels. It also includes a detailed explanation of all questions in the questionnaire and how to complete the data in such a way as to ensure the highest possible data accuracy. The manual also includes the basic edit rules to be used by the enumerators and edit staff while checking the questionnaire. It also includes the duties of the survey staff (supervisors, controllers, enumerators and edit team) in addition to the electronic edit rules necessary for data processing.

C – Coding Manuals

All questions in the questionnaire were assigned with predefined special codes. The design of the questionnaire takes into account that all the questions contained therein have predefined symbols. The International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC), Rev. 4 and the Central Product Classification (CPC) catalogues are used to code the goods. The “Cities and Villages Directory” prepared by the Department of Statistics (DoS) is used to encode the geographic location of the economic establishments.

2 – 2: Definitions and Classifications

The statistical unit: The establishment is considered a statistical unit in this survey. Accordingly, the work performed by each establishment has been reviewed and studied separately. If it is found that the works carried out by the establishment are homogeneous and fall under same (one) economic activity, then the establishment in this case is considered a statistical unit and all its data are recorded in one questionnaire.

In the event that the establishment exercises more than one economic activity and the input data were not possible to separate, therefore the main activity is determined and the rest of the activities are considered as secondary activities (their data are included in the same questionnaire).

Gross Output: It represents the value of goods and services produced during a given period of time as a result of performing a productive activity (whether this activity is primary or secondary). This includes goods and services produced for own use. That is:

Production value of the main activity + production value of secondary activities (these include industrial production + commercial margins + revenue of services provided to others + income from other secondary activities).

Intermediate Consumption: It is the value of production inputs for goods and services used in production (i.e., intermediate consumption “value of commodity purchases adjusted by value of change in inventory + other production expenses”).

Compensation of Employees: This item includes the total salaries and wages in cash and in kind due to employees and the value of producers’ contribution to social security installments in addition to other monetary and in-kind benefits owed to employees.

Net Indirect Taxes: It means all amounts due to the state, public institutions or municipalities, including: consumption and sales tax, license fees, building tax, vehicle license fees, revenue stamps, residence fees, work permits or any other fees due to the state minus value of state subsidies.

Depreciation is the current replacement cost of fixed assets that can be re-produced, except for roads, dams and similar constructions of government service producers, during an accounting period due to normal depreciation, obsolescence or normal rate of damage. This does not include the unexpected obsolescence and damage caused by major disasters and depletion of the natural resources. Depreciation is calculated on the basis of percentages of the book value of fixed assets at the beginning of the year and of capital additions during the year.

Gross Fixed Capital Formation: It is the value incurred by the establishment during the year on acquisition of new durable goods as an addition to its fixed asset inventory (excluding land) minus net sales of fixed assets used. Accordingly, Gross Fixed Capital Formation can be calculated as follows:

Gross Fixed Capital Formation (during the year) (purchases “imported and domestic, new or used) + value of assets produced by the establishment + additions and improvements – sales).

2 – 3: Organization of the Survey Staff

The staff consists of the survey management team entrusted with all supervisory tasks (administrative or technical), in addition to the office staff consisting of the archive and edit staff in addition to coders. The field team consists of controllers, edit staff and enumerators work under supervision of the field supervisor.

2- 4: Selection and Training of Enumerators

The survey team members were selected according to criteria related to the nature of the work. The quality of the employees in terms of academic level and specialization were the main criteria for joining this survey. A training program was held for all employees that included explanation of the survey objectives, data collection methods, how to approach the establishments in addition to all questions in the questionnaire. At the end of training, participants have undergone a written test to determine their comprehension levels of the concepts and instructions of the questionnaire.


3 – 1: Organization of Field Work

The fieldwork was carried out by trained enumerators under supervision of the controllers. The enumerators were divided into teams, each consisting of two or three enumerators, a controller and an edit employee.

3- 2: Method of Data Collection

The data collection phase of the survey sample begins from March each year, where the data usually collected through a personal interview. In the case of some large enterprises, a date is set for completing the questionnaire data so that the person in charge of this task in the establishment could prepare the necessary data. In some cases, some of these establishments were still in the process of preparing their final accounts for the previous year, which forced the enumerator to leave the questionnaire at the establishment and take a later date to collect it after completion of data.

3- 3: Field Edit

The field edit process was delegated to the field edit staff that regularly checks the completed questionnaires. In case of any errors in any questionnaire, it is returned to the enumerator to visit the establishment again to correct the error.


4 -1: Office Processing

The completed questionnaires were delivered to the Department of Statistics (DoS) on a weekly basis recorded on special lists. They are received and checked by the Office Processing Staff in the Services and Finance Division. In case of errors during the checking process, they are referred to the head of the division or his assistant for their decision. Depending on the type of error to be corrected, either through direct contact with the person concerned at the establishment to inquire about the information or to return the questionnaire to the field so that the enumerator visits the establishment to rectify the error. Then the questionnaires were coded for delivery to the IT Directorate.

4 – 2: Electronic Processing

After completing the verification and coding of the questionnaires, they are sent to the Data Entry Division in the IT Directorate for being entered using a special software. The errors in the questionnaires used to be corrected immediately during the data entry process through the automated edit programs. After completion of this process and data cleaning, the programmer extracts the lists that include the preliminary results using the pre-set weights for further checking and verification of the results.

4 – 3: Tabulation and Dissemination of Results

After checking the preliminary results and verifying their validity in terms of form and consistency of data within the same table and with the other tables, the final tables included in this report were extracted. These results were also loaded on the web site of the Department of Statistics (DoS).

  • Bulletins, Publications and Analytical Reports

The results of the survey are published annually (hard copy and electronic format).

The Services Survey aims – in general – to provide the following data by type of activity:

  1. Compensation of employees (salaries, wages and benefits in cash and in kind).
  2. Total value of production and intermediate consumption.
  3. Measuring the size of capital invested and providing data on capital formation during the year.
  4. Estimating the contribution of the Services Sector to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and to provide the necessary data for preparing the national accounts in accordance with the United Nations System of National Accounts 1993.
  5. Data needed for economic analysis.

The survey results are published at the end of May each year.

Data Bank

Tables: Before 2009 
Tables: After 2009 

Source: Department of Statistics