Input and Output

Input and Output

The Input and Output Division was established in 2010 following the preparation of the Input and Output tables – 2006 in cooperation with the Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation (MOPIC).

The National Accounts data of 2006 were selected as a reference basis for constructing these tables due to economic and statistical considerations, most notably availability of actual and final data, as well as the economic stability of that year. The project was launched at the beginning of 2009.

The Input and Output tables are of great importance in the process of analysis, planning and providing decision makers with the necessary data. These tables are a statistical description of the performance of the economy and deal mainly with methods of dependence and inter- linkages between different economic sectors.

 These tables present the reciprocal relationship between various economic sectors and industries with commodities (using the International Standard Industrial Classification “ISIC” of Economic Activities and the Central Product Classification-”CPC”). These tables represent a square matrix where the sectors group is placed horizontally in it as productive sectors. The same sectors are placed vertically as user sectors … therefore; each sector occupies a row and a column in the matrix so the distribution of this sector’s products on other sectors appears, while the sector’s uses from other sectors’ products appear in the column of this sector.

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But, in order to construct the Input and Output tables, it is inevitable to create the Supply and Use Tables, which require huge details and then to create the different balancing processes between the supply side and the demand side. After arriving at the equilibrium stage (supply = demand) obtained through manual balancing at the beginning and then move to automatic balancing (Mathematically), then converting these tables into square tables (columns = rows) which are called the Input and Output Tables.

SUPPLY AND USE TABLES

Reasons for the importance of the Supply and Use Tables:

  • Reflect the extent and accuracy of the statistical surveys and their shortcomings.
  • Considered as the main starting point to construct the Input and Output tables.
  • Basis for preparing the GDP estimates according to the three approaches (expenditure, income and production).
  • Considered as a major component in the Social Accounts Matrix.

SUPPLY SIDE COMPONENTS:

Domestic Product Matrix: It shows the commodities produced domestically and can be evaluated using more than one price, but the international recommendations prefer to evaluate the domestic production at basic prices in order to show the real cost of the commodity and thus to identify the economic impact. Generally, the data are obtained through the surveys.

Imports Matrix: It shows the value of imports from the outside world by commodity type. Its data is obtained from External Trade statistics valued at CIF price (includes insurance and shipping costs up to the border point of the importing country).

Margins Matrix (Trade and Transport):

Trade Margins: In order to achieve a trade margin, there should be commodity sale and purchase operation. There are two types of these margins (retail and wholesale).

Transport Margins: The Transport Margin is achieved when there is a commodity and needs to be transported and the existence of a third party specialized in commodity transportation.

Tax and Subsidies Matrix: This matrix includes the following:

Taxes and customs duties, they are obtained from Customs Department and the Ministry of Finance.

Sales tax on intermediate goods is refundable and the same tax on final goods is not refundable. They are obtained from the surveys and also from the Income Tax Department.

USE SIDE COMPONENTS:

Intermediate Demand Matrix: This matrix shows the goods and services used by the economic activities as production inputs and are estimated at buyers’ prices.

Final Demand Matrix: It includes the following:

  • Final Household Expenditure: It shows amounts spent by households on goods and services.
  • Final Government Expenditure: It represents the government production calculated by costs minus market and non-market sales.
  • Final Expenditure of the Non-profit Institutions Serving Households: It means production of institutions calculated at cost minus the market and non-market sales.

Capital Formation Matrix: It shows the change in fixed assets during the year.

Stock Change Matrix: It shows the change in the quantity of commodity inventory (production/ intermediate consumption) during the year.

Exports Matrix: It shows the exports and re-exports of goods and services during the year.

EQUILIBERIUM PHASE (Supply = Demand):

After constructing the supply and use tables, the equilibrium process begins according to the economic theory (supply = demand) in the sense that the supplied quantity of a product or service must be equal to the demanded quantity … there are several methods to make the equilibrium process such as the manual and automatic calculation methods.

After obtaining balanced supply and use tables, it becomes possible through some matrixes, statistical and mathematical processes to convert these tables into square input and output tables. It is possible also to construct the social accounts matrix through the tables.

Aims of External Trade

External trade division aims to:

  1. Issue monthly reports and comprehensive annual publication reports covering External trade Statistics.
  2. Providing a comprehensive statistical database for External Trade Statistics monthly   and annual reports by commodity and countries.
  3. Monitoring of trade exchange between countries (The trade balance).
  4. Providing the searchers, planners and decision makers with accurate information’s about External Trade.

Data sources of External Trade Statistics

  1. Customs diclarations issued by the Jordanian Customs Department,.through the Customs offices linked to the system computerization of customs procedures which is called (AsycudaWorld System ).Asycuda World is an Automated System for Customs Data and aims to raise the efficiency of collection and contributing to trade liberalization by simplifying customs procedures and reduce the time needed for cargo clearance system, as it includes advanced concepts. This system also provides accurate administrative statistics and information  required for good planning .
  2. Customs data from the Centers not computerized (paper copies)and the monthly reports from companies such as (Potash Company, Phosphate, and the Jordanian Petroleum Refinery Company, Royal Jordanian, the National Electricity Company, and the Ministry of Agriculture and the Indian company).The data related to the main commodities of these companies are considered as an official data by our Department .

Functions Of Workers At The Foreign Trade Division

There are (9) persons working at the Foreign Trade Division .They provide statistical information on foreign trade statistics, by bringing data from the customs offices and from the other uncomputerized  offices at the  Jordanian Customs Department Data are sorted by customs offices individually and by type of trade , Exports , Imports , Re-Exports and by month.

These data are coded, edited, and entered into PCs for data processing. After that a final detailed listing for each of exports, re-exports and imports are extracted using the program Oracle Thus Extracted results are published in monthly reports and stored in  adetailed database and annual CD.

Phases and Working Mechanism Of The External Trade Division

The first stage :

Sorting of the customs declarations:-

  1. Guide tariff ( HS), to be issued in the last year of work where all amendments and changes should be taken into consideration .Since the establishment of the Department of Statistics, the Eternal Trade Division has been using the old tariff (BTN) of the Customs Cooperation Council, until the end of the year 1993, when the DoS has switched to use the new customs tariff system (HS) issued by the World Trade Organization since the beginning of the year 1994 till now, leading the situation to be clarified and more detailed of the goods and this also led to the ease in the classification of goods and identify customs duties which led to reduced controversy between the traders and the Customs Department .
  2. List of countries.
  3. Customs Offices Guide.
  4. Guide for Measuring of  Quantities.
  5. Guide for Means of Transport and Nationality.
  6. Guide for the Currency used.

Sorting of computerized customs data (ASY):-

The programmer in the IT Directorate at the Department, after reciving  the file of External Trade Statistics from the Customs Department transfers the Text File into a program based Oracle.

After selecting the statistical fields from that file, the programmer sorts the information contained therein into exports, imports, re-exports and transit and  by year, month and Customs office.

Second stage:

Checking the data at the Office:-

Checking the data is done at his Division in case of detecting of errors related to the process of coding, or country of origin.

This is done for  the data sent by the offices where data are not computorized. As for the computerized data, they are checked and corrected through linking with the Modem (connected to the main Server at the  Jordanian Customs Department).

Third stage:

Data entry:-

The coded Customs Declarations are entered into PCs by data entry staff using pre-desinged  program (Oracle), where  data listing  is extracted.

For the monthly reports provided by the large companies, (Potash Company, Phosphate Company, the Jordan Petrolium Refinary Company, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Royal Jordanian, , the Indian company,  the National Electricity Company ) these reports will be coded and tabulated and  to be incorporated  with the other data.

Forth Stage :

Checking Lists (manual):

Lists shall be distributed to the auditors according to the type of disclosure (issued, imported, re-exported) provided that the above conditions are met by the auditor.

Fifth Stage :

Amendment to the Lists:

The errors are corrected in the reports from both sources and the extraction of new Lists are checked in the same way and in the case of errors either through the coding mechanism or from the input data and then the extraction of statements for the third time.

At this stage the data must be revised at a high rate where he Checkers re-check and verify the data in them.

  1. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by production approach.
  2. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by expenditure approach.
  3. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by production factors input approach.
  4. Sectors inter- linkages, front and back links between various economic sectors.

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